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Homesectornomics materialsFor US-Russia, Cold War and corn share long history

For US-Russia, Cold War and corn share long history

Cold war and corn have gone together for a long time.

In September 1959, at the height of the U.S.-Russian geopolitical animosity, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev stood on a farm field in Coon Rapids, Iowa, to view the latest innovations in U.S. agricultural production methods and equipment. A legend in American farm and seed innovation, Roswell Garst, had invited Khrushchev to his family farm. Agricultural historians argue that even though he was overthrown in 1964, Khrushchev's trip to Iowa was critical in transitioning Russian agriculture into an industry that today is the third-largest exporter of grains behind the U.S. and European Union.


The current standoff between the U.S. and Russia features a different Khrushchev decision—his jettisoning of the Crimea in 1954. But there's an agricultural angle to explore: Ukraine's political showdown with Russia is threatening one of post-Soviet Europe's feel-good growth stories—the emergence of Ukraine as an agricultural powerhouse rocketing up the ranks of the world's food exporters.

Now everything from an unstable currency to tight credit threatens the spring planting season, and the uncertain outlook for the Ukrainian economy is a longer-term threat to the prediction by some of the biggest agricultural companies that a future Ukrainian corn belt will rival the U.S. market.

Ukraine and, to a wider extent, Eastern Europe, are among the most promising growth markets for farm-equipment giant Deere, as well as seed producers Monsanto and DuPont, said Michael Cox, senior analyst and research director at Piper Jaffray. Ukraine's growth is becoming even more important, as it will serve to counterbalance the South American farm markets, where overseas growth has been increasing in places like Argentina and Brazil for these companies.

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Room for growth
Four keys point toward Ukraine's possible success as a corn giant: the right kind of land and level of farm technology development, room for yield improvement, and a growing demand for corn from the world.

Soil and climate conditions in western Ukraine closely resemble the U.S. northern corn belt in Minnesota and the Dakotas. Meanwhile, Ukraine is only now adopting Western farming practices, Cox said, who visited Ukraine last fall, and that means the Ukranian agricultural revolution is really just beginning.

Corn producers in Ukraine get yields of only about 80 bushels per acre, compared with 130 on similar land in the U.S.—roughly 60 percent of U.S. yields. And with almost 40 percent of U.S. corn going to ethanol, and rising worldwide demand for meat and other protein that is produced by feeding animals corn, there is room in the market, he added.

Global corn production in thousand metric tons

Crop production years 2009/10 2013/14Feb 2013/14Mar
Argentina 25000 24000 24000
Brazil 56100 70000 70000
Canada 9796 14200 14200
China 163974 217000 217730
Egypt 6280 5600 5600
European Union 59147 64685 64885
India 16720 23000 23000
Indonesia 6900 9200 9100
Mexico 20374 21700 21700
Nigeria 8950 7700 7700
Philippines 6231 7315 7315
Russia 3963 10682 10682
Serbia 6400 6000 6000
South Africa 13420 13000 13000
Ukraine 10486 30900 30900
Others 79159 87934 87989
Subtotal 492900 612916 613801
United States 332549 353715 353715
World Total 825449 966631 967516

"It's the Western corporate farm operators that are pushing these new techniques,'' Cox said. "The U.S. has made this same transition. It took several decades, but that's as the technology was being developed. Since the technology and tools are readily available now, the improvement in yields could progress much faster in Eastern Europe.''

DuPont already has a corn seed production plant in Ukraine. Monsanto is building a $140 million seed plant that isn't open yet. Last week DuPont said in a regulatory filing that first-quarter earnings forecasts would be "challenged'' by the Ukraine crisis, which has caused delays in shipments of corn seed from its plant in Ukraine.

Even with farming that's still primitive by Western standards, Ukraine is moving up the exporter charts with a bullet. The nation of 45 million people gets 10 percent of its economy from agriculture—10 times the U.S. percentage—and its corn production has risen almost 17 percent a year since 2008, three times as fast as Brazil, the second-fastest-growing major producer.

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With the world's 29th-largest population, Ukraine is now the fifth-biggest corn producer in the world and tied with Argentina for the third-largest exporter. (The U.S. is by far the largest producer and exporter of corn.) Exports are up 15-fold since the USSR collapsed, tripling from 2010 to last year. In wheat, Ukraine is the sixth-largest producer but only the ninth-largest exporter, since it uses more of that crop at home, Cox said.

It's not trade that makes a huge difference for U.S. consumers, since little Ukrainian grain ends up in the U.S.'' said David Sedik, senior agricultural policy officer for Europe and Central Asia at the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, but impediments to Ukrainian agricultural growth could have big implications for global food supply, including in the European Union, where short-term concern has been expressed regarding Ukrainian crop disruptions. In January, Cargill, which has operated in the Ukraine for many years, agreed to pay $200 million for a 5 percent stake in UkrLandFarming, Ukraine's largest agribusiness holding, in a deal expected to boost exports to China. The crisis has not affected Ukrainian grain exports to date, with corn futures falling steeply earlier this week after data showing that Ukrainian supply had not slowed at the docks.

Global wheat production in thousand metric tons

Crop production years 2009/10 2013/14Feb 2013/14Mar
Argentina 12000 10500 10500
Australia 21834 26500 27000
Canada 26950 37500 37500
China 115120 122000 121720
Egypt 8523 8800 8800
European Union 139720 142866 142886
India 80680 92460 93510
Iran 13485 14500 14500
Kazakhstan 17051 13941 13941
Morocco 6400 7000 7000
Pakistan 24000 24000 24000
Russia 61770 52068 52068
Turkey 18450 18000 18000
Ukraine 20866 22278 22278
Uzbekistan 6200 6800 6800
Others 53590 54711 54251
Subtotal 626639 653924 654754
United States 60366 57961 57961
World Total 687005 711885 712715

Agricultural experts said Ukraine is at a middle stage in adopting Western farm techniques. The government still controls most farmland, leasing it out to small and large farms. Equipment is often old and unreliable, Cox said, while Sidek adds that the Ukranian government's unwillingness to let farms fail slows the adoption of more-efficient techniques. A Piper Jaffray survey of Ukranian farmers found Deere the most popular of the Western equipment makers, while Trimble Navigation, which makes GPS systems for farming, may also get a sales boost from Ukraine.

There have been clear signs of agricultural disruption from Ukraine's political crisis.

The price of corn in futures markets had jumped by a double-digit percentage since November, when Ukrainian protests began. Ukraine's currency is also down double digits—there are forecasts it may drop another 20 percent—making farmers more reluctant to sell crops for export, while also threatening access to the equipment and financing that farmers need to keep growing—in both senses of the word.

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"If Ukraine is 10 percent of the [worldwide] export market and corn prices have gone up 10 percent, that may be the simple math,'' Cox said. "The market may be adjusting for a total wipeout of Ukraine's production, which isn't likely."

"It increases the price of chemicals and machinery, and most of that is imported,'' Sidek said. "That's close to a 50 percent increase in the price of the inputs.''

Fertilizer has been the most examined aspect of the Ukraine farm story—and the geopolitical crisis has even helped some fertilizer stocks, since corn prices move in tandem with crop prices and there has also been speculation about potential impacts from the crisis on Russia's large domestic fertilizer industry, which has dominated in Ukraine and also kept a lid on global fertilizer opportunities. The benchmark Black Sea price for urea fertilizer is up about 18 percent since the Ukrainian crisis began.

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